Food & Nutrition Food List

Vitamin K

What is vitamin K?

Vitamin K is a fat-soluble compounds . It is found in plants and is the primary source of vitamin K that humans obtain through foods.

Why is vitamin K necessary?

  • Vitamin K is an essential nutrient necessary for responding to injuries – it regulates normal blood clotting.
  • By assisting the transport of calcium throughout the body, Vitamin K may also be helpful for bone health: it may reduce bone loss, and decrease risk of bone fractures.
  • It also may help to prevent calcification of arteries and other soft tissue.

What are the signs of a deficiency?

  • While rare, a deficiency in vitamin K can lead to defective blood clotting, increased bleeding and osteoporosis.
  • Symptoms include easy bruising, gastrointestinal bleeding, excessive menstrual bleeding and blood in the urine.

Those most at risk for a vitamin K deficiency include people with chronic malnutrition, those with alcohol dependency, and anyone with health conditions that limit absorption of dietary vitamins.

How much, and what kind, does an adult need?

Adults and children who eat a balanced diet that include the foods listed below will obtain enough vitamin K, and do not need supplementation. People who may benefit from supplemental vitamin K are babies (who usually get a shot of vitamin K at birth) and those with digestive diseases.

How much does a child need?

In an effort to prevent “hemorrhagic disease of newborn,” also known as vitamin K deficiency bleeding or VKDB, a vitamin K1 injection may be given to newborns and young infants. Otherwise, food sources should fill any daily needs.

How do you get enough from foods?

Vitamin K is abundant in green tea, leafy greens, such as Swiss chard, kale, parsley and spinach, broccoli and cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, liver, soybean oil and wheat bran. Fermented dairy, including yogurt, cheeses, and fermented soy including miso and natto, provide K2, which is especially helpful in increasing bone density and reducing the risk of fractures. Those with osteoporosis or osteopenia should consider supplementing 50 to 100 mcg (micrograms) of K2, and eat foods rich in vitamin K.


Food & Nutrition Food List

Vitamin E

What is vitamin E?

Vitamin E is a powerful, fat-soluble antioxidant that helps protect cell membranes against damage caused by free radicals and prevents the oxidation of LDL cholesterol.

Why is vitamin E necessary?

  • Vitamin E is necessary for structural and functional maintenance of skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle.
  • It also assists in the formation of red blood cells and helps to maintain stores of vitamins A and K, iron, and selenium.
  • It may have a positive effect on immune health, protect against the oxidative damage that can lead to heart disease, have preventive effects against cancer, help relieve symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease, and may help prevent some diabetes-related damage, particularly to the eyes.

What are the signs of a vitamin E deficiency?

Vitamin E deficiency is rare in humans. Symptoms of a vitamin E deficiency include greasy stools, chronic diarrhea and an inability to secrete bile.

How much, and what kind, of vitamin E, does an adult need?

Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for adults older than 14-years is 15 mg (or 22.5 IU); pregnant women of any age should get 15 mg (or 22.5 IU); and breastfeeding women of any age should take 19 mg (or 28.5 IU).

How much vitamin E does a child need?

RDA and Adequate Intake (AI):

  • children 1-3 years, 6 mg/day (9 IU/day)
  • children 4-8 years, 7 mg/day (10.5 IU/day)
  • children 9-13 years, 11 mg/day (16.5 IU/day).

How do you get enough vitamin E from foods?

Good vitamin E food sources include

  • Cod liver oil
  • vegetable oils
  • avocados
  • spinach
  • sunflower seeds
  • wheat germ
  • nuts and
  • whole grains


Food & Nutrition Food List

Vitamin B 12

What Is Vitamin B12?

Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is a nutrient you need for good health. It’s one of eight B vitamins that help the body convert the food you eat into glucose, which gives you energy. Vitamin B12 has a number of additional functions. It is needed for:

  • production of elements of DNA
  • production of red blood cells
  • regeneration of bone marrow and the lining of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts
  • maintaining the health of the nervous system and spinal cord
  • prevention of megaloblastic anemia

How Much B12 Do I Need?

The amount of vitamin B12 you need is determined primarily by your age. Below the dietary need is given in micrograms:

  • birth to 6 months: 0.4 mcg
  • infants 7–12 months: 0.5 mcg
  • children 1–3 years: 0.9 mcg
  • children 4–8 years: 1.2 mcg
  • children 9–13 years: 1.8 mcg
  • teens 14–18 years: 2.4 mcg
  • adults: 2.4 mcg
  • pregnant teens and women: 2.6 mcg
  • breastfeeding teens and women: 2.8 mcg

Vitamin B12 is found naturally in foods that come from animals, including meat, fish, eggs, and dairy products. It also may be found in some fortified cereals and nutritional yeast.

Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency

Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency include:

  • shakiness
  • muscle weakness
  • stiff, spastic muscles
  • fatigue
  • incontinence
  • low blood pressure
  • mood disturbances

The most serious condition associated with vitamin B12 deficiency is megaloblastic anemia. This is a chronic blood disorder in which the bone marrow produces overly large, immature blood cells. As a result, the body doesn’t have enough healthy red blood cells to carry oxygen around the body.

Do Older Adults Need More B12?

Older adults are in the age group most likely to be deficient in vitamin B12.It can:

  • reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke
  • benefit memory
  • offer protection against Alzheimer’s disease
  • improve balance

How Do I Know if I Have Vitamin B12 Deficiency?

A simple blood test can determine the B12 levels in your body. If your stores are low, your doctor may prescribe a supplement. Supplemental vitamin B12 is available in capsules form, in tablets form. In some cases, your doctor may prefer to use injections to increase vitamin B12 levels.

You should aware of vitamin B12 in your diet, but you don’t need to be overly concerned about if you’re not in an at-risk group. As with most nutrients, it’s best if you can get the vitamin B12 you need from the food you eat. For ample stores of vitamin B12, eat a well-rounded diet that includes meat, fish, eggs, and dairy products.


Food & Nutrition Food List

Vitamin B

The Symptoms of Vitamin B Deficiency

The Symptoms of Vitamin B Deficiency

Vitamin B12

What it does: Vitamin B12 helps regulate the nervous system. It also plays a role in growth and red blood cell formation.

Vitamin B12 is found primarily in meat and dairy products, so strict vegetarians are at risk for a deficiency.

What happens if you don’t get enough: Vitamin B12 deficiencies can lead to

  • anemia and confusion in elderly people.
  • The identifiable B12 deficiencies exhibite megaloblastic anemia.
  • Psychological problems such as dementia, paranoia, depression, and behavioral problems can result from a vitamin B12 deficiency.
  • People with B12 deficiencies often report tingling in their feet and hands

Vitamin B6

Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) helps the body turn food into energy. It can also help the body fight infections. Pregnant and breastfeeding women need it to help their babies’ brains develop normally.

B6 can be found in fish, poultry, liver, potatoes, and non-citrus fruit.


  • Insufficient amounts of B6 can result in anemia as well as skin disorders, such as a rash or cracks around the mouth.
  • A lack of B6 also can cause depression, confusion, or a susceptibility to infections.

Vitamins B1 and B2

Vitamin B1 is also called thiamin. Vitamin B2 is also called riboflavin. These vitamins also help convert food into energy. Vitamin B1 has neurological benefits, and vitamin B2 helps maintain proper eyesight.

Most people get B1 from breakfast cereals and whole grains. B2 also can be found in whole grains, as well as in milk, eggs, and dark green vegetables.

  • Deficiencies in vitamins B1 and B2 generally don’t pose a problem . It can become an issue with alcoholics, however, presenting issues such as confusion and cracks along the sides of the mouth.

Vitamin B9

Vitamin B9 is also called folic acid. Like most B vitamins, it fosters the growth of red blood cells. But it also reduces the risk of birth defects.

Vitamin B9 can be found in many foods, from meats to grains to citrus fruits.

  • Without enough B9, a person can develop diarrhea or anemia. Pregnant women with a B9 deficiency could give birth to babies with defects.


Food & Nutrition Food List

Vitamin A

Facts About Vitamin A

What is vitamin A?

“Vitamin A” is the blanket term for retinoids, biologically active compounds that occur naturally in both plant and animal tissues.

The vitamin A that comes from animal sources is fat-soluble, and in the form of retinoic acid, retinal and retinol.

The vitamin A in fruits and vegetables is in the form of  “provitamin A” -vitamin A precursors also known as  carotenoids, which must be converted by the human body into usable retinoids. They are water-soluble and do not accumulate in the body, so toxicity is rare.

Why is vitamin A necessary?

  • Vitamin A plays a vital role in bone growth,reproduction and immune system health
  • It also helps the skin and mucous membranes repel bacteria and viruses more effectively.
  • It is essential to healthy vision, and may slow declining retinal function in people with retinitis pigmentosa

What are the signs of a deficiency?

Vitamin A deficiency is common in developing countries.

  • One of the earliest signs of a deficiency is night blindness. Permanent blindness can result if the deficiency is left unchecked.
  • Vitamin A deficiency also allows opportunistic infectious diseases such as measles and pneumonia to become deadly.

How much need?

  • About 5000IU(adult)
  • About 6000IU(pregnant women)
  • About 8000IU(breast feeding mother)
  • About 2000-4500Iu(1-12years old children)

How do you get enough vitamin A from foods?

  • The richest animal source of retinols is beef liver.
  • The best natural sources of carotenoids are fruits and vegetables, including
  • carrots
  • spinach
  • kale
  • butternut squash
  • cantaloupe
  • mangoes
  • pumpkins and
  • pumpkins and
  • sweet potatoes.

Are there risks associated with too much vitamin A?

Excessive, chronic intake of some forms of vitamin A can be toxic. Avoid taking supplemental vitamin A as retinol or retinoic acid, and instead use plant-derived vitamin A precursors such as beta-carotene (in addition to other mixed carotenoids). Also avoid concentrated animal sources such as cod liver oil (although some forms of cod liver oil are vitamin A reduced and are safe – check the label). Warning symptoms of overdose include hair loss, confusion, liver damage and bone loss.


Food & Nutrition Food List

Vitamin C

Facts on Vitamin C

Vitamin C (also known as ascorbic acid) is abundant in vegetables and fruits. A water-soluble vitamin and powerful antioxidant, it helps the body form and maintain connective tissue, including bones, blood vessels, and skin.

Why is vitamin C necessary, what does vitamin C do and what are some vitamin C benefits?

Vitamin C helps to repair and regenerate tissues, protect against heart disease, aid in the absorption of iron, prevent scurvy, and decrease total and LDL (“bad”) cholesterol and triglycerides.

Research indicates that vitamin C may help protect against a variety of cancers by combating free radicals, and helping neutralize the effects of nitrites (preservatives found in some packaged foods that may raise the risk of certain forms of cancer).

Supplemental vitamin C may also lessen the duration and symptoms of a common cold; help delay or prevent cataracts; and support healthy immune function.

What are the signs of a vitamin C deficiency?

Deficiency symptoms include

  • fatigue
  • muscle weakness
  • joint and muscle aches
  • bleeding gums
  • leg rashes
  • Prolonged deficiency can cause scurvy, a rare but potentially severe illness.

How much, and what kind, does an adult need?

The recommended daily intake for adults: is

  • men, 90 mg per day
  • women, 75 mg per day
  • pregnant women, 85 mg per day
  • breastfeeding women, 120 mg per day.

Smokers may benefit from a higher intake.

How much does a child need?

Adequate Intakes (AIs):

  • infants 0-6 months old, 40 mg per day
  • infants 7-12 months old, 50 mg per day.
  • toddlers 1-3 years old, 15 mg per day
  • children 4-8 years old, 25 mg
  • children 9-13 years old, 45 mg per day
  • male teens 14-18 years old, 75 mg per day
  • female teens 14-18 years old, 65 mg.

How do you get enough vitamin C from foods?

Vitamin C is easy to get through foods, as many fruits (especially citrus) and vegetables contain vitamin C. Good sources include:

  1. Apples
  2. Asparagus
  3. Berries
  4. Broccoli
  5. Cabbage
  6. Melon (cantaloupe, honeydew, watermelon)
  7. Cauliflower
  8. Citrus fruits (lemons, limes, oranges)
  9. Kiwi
  10. Fortified foods (breads, grains, cereal)
  11. Dark leafy greens (kale, spinach)
  12. Peppers (especially red bell peppers, which have among the highest per-serving vitamin C content)
  13. Potatoes
  14. Tomatoes

Are there any risks associated with too much vitamin C?

When obtained from food sources and supplements in the recommended dosages, vitamin C is generally regarded as safe. Side effects are rarely reported, but include nausea, vomiting, heartburn, abdominal cramps, and headache. For most healthy individuals, the body can only hold and use about 250mg of vitamin C a day, and any excess is lost though urine. At times of illness, during recovery from injury, or under conditions of increased oxidative stress (including smoking), the body can use greater amounts. High doses of vitamin C (greater than 2,000 mg/day) may contribute to the formation of kidney stone as well as cause severe diarrhoea, nausea, and gastritis.


Food & Nutrition Food List

Vitamin D

What is vitamin D?

Vitamin D, often referred to as the “sunshine vitamin,” is actually a fat-soluble hormone that the body can synthesize naturally. Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) is synthesized by plants, and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is synthesized by humans when skin is exposed to ultraviolet-B (UVB) rays from sunlight.

Why is vitamin D necessary?

  • Vitamin D helps in the absorption of calcium and promotes bone mineralization, which may prevent or slow the progression of osteoporosis.
  • It also helps to strengthen the immune system and protect against a number of serious diseases, including rickets and osteomalacia.
  • Vitamin D may also provide protection from hypertension ,psoriasis, several autoimmune diseases (including multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis, and reduce the incidence of fractured bones. In addition, growing evidence has demonstrated its important role in defending against cancer (studies link a deficiency of vitamin D to as many as 18 different cancers).

What are the signs of a deficiency?

Deficiencies of vitamin D are common, especially in industrialized countries where sun exposure is typically infrequent. Low levels of vitamin D may be indicated by porous bones, weak muscles and easy fracturing.

How much vitamin D should adults take?

The daily Adequate Intake (AI) for adults is 5 mcg (200 IU) daily for males, female, and pregnant/lactating women under the age of 50. People 50 to 70 years old should get 10 mcg daily (400 IU) daily, and those over 70 should get 15 mcg daily (600 IU). Anyone with vitamin D deficiencies should discuss intake levels with his or her physician.

How much vitamin D should children take?

AI for children from birth until 5 years of age should take 5 mcg per day (200 IU).


Mainly sunlight

Food Source: Mushrooms, Cheese, Fish Eggs, Egg Yolk, Fortified Milk & Foods, Oily Fish, Red Meat, Liver etc.