First Aid

Animal Bites

  1. Stop Bleeding

  • Apply direct pressure until bleeding stops.

  1. Clean and Protect

For a wound or superficial scratch from an animal bite:

  • Gently clean with soap and warm water. Rinse for several minutes after cleaning.
  • Apply antibiotic cream to reduce risk of infection, and cover with a sterile bandage.
  1. Get Help

  • Get medical help immediately for any animal bite that is more than a superficial scratch or if the animal was a wild animal or stray, regardless of the severity of the injury.
  • If the animal’s owner is available, find out if the animal’s rabies shots are up-to-date. Give this information to your health care provider.
  • If the animal was a stray or wild animal, call the local health department or animal control immediately.
  1. Follow Up

  • The health care provider will make sure the wound is thoroughly clean and may prescribe antibiotics.
  • If there is any risk of rabies infection, the health care provider will recommend anti-rabies treatment.
  • The person may require stitches, depending on the location and severity of the animal bite.
  • The person may also require a tetanus shot or booster.
  • The health care provider may recommend ibuprofen or paracetamol for pain.
First Aid

Bleeding Cuts or Wounds

Stop Bleeding

  • Apply direct pressure on the cut or wound with a clean cloth, tissue, or piece of gauze until bleeding stops.
  • If blood soaks through the material, don’t remove it. Put more cloth or gauze on top of it and continue to apply pressure.
  • If the wound is on the arm or leg, raise limb above the heart to help slow bleeding.
  • Wash your hands again after giving first aid and before cleaning and dressing the wound.
  • Do not apply a tourniquet unless the bleeding is severe and not stopped with direct pressure.


Clean Cut or Wound

  • Gently clean with soap and warm water. Try to rinse soap out of wound to prevent irritation.
  • Don’t use hydrogen peroxide or iodine, which can damage tissue.


Protect the Wound

  • Apply antibiotic cream to reduce risk of infection and cover with a sterile bandage.
  • Change the bandage daily to keep the wound clean and dry.


When to Call a Doctor

  • The wound is deep or the edges are jagged or gaping open.
  • The wound is on the person’s face.
  • The wound has dirt or debris that won’t come out.
  • The wound shows signs of infection, such as redness, tenderness, or a thick discharge, or if the person runs a temperature over 100º F.
  • The area around the wound feels numb.
  • Red streaks form around the wound.
  • The person has a puncture wound or deep cut and hasn’t had a tetanus shot in the past five years, or anyone who hasn’t had a tetanus shot in the past 10 years.


First Aid


Burn management

Burns can be minor medical problems or life-threatening emergencies. Many people die each year from fire-related burn injuries. Electricity and chemicals also cause severe burns. Scalding liquids are the most common cause of burns in children

Treatment of burns depends on the location and severity of the injury. Sunburns and small scalds can usually be treated at home. Deep or widespread burns need immediate medical attention.


Many things can cause burns, including:

  • Fire
  • Hot liquid or steam
  • Hot metal, glass or other objects
  • Electrical currents
  • Radiation from X-rays or radiation therapy to treat cancer
  • Sunlight or ultraviolet light from a sunlamp or tanning bed
  • Chemicals such as strong acids, lye, paint thinner or gasoline
  • Abuse


Deep or widespread burns can lead to many complications, including:


Low blood volume.

Dangerously low body temperature.

Breathing problems.


Bone and joint problems.

Treatments and drugs

Treatment of burns depends on the type and extent of the injuries. Most minor burns can be treated at home using over-the-counter products or aloe. They usually heal within a few weeks.

Lifestyle and home remedies

To treat minor burns, follow these steps:

  • Cool the burn. Run cool (not cold) tap water over the burn for 10 to 15 minutes or until the pain eases. Or apply a clean towel dampened with cool tap water. Don’t use ice. Putting ice directly on a burn can cause further damage to the tissue.
  • Remove rings or other tight items from the burned area. Try to do this quickly and gently, before the area swells.
  • Don’t break small blisters (no bigger than your little fingernail). If blisters break, gently clean the area with mild soap and water, apply an antibiotic ointment, and cover it with a nonstick gauze bandage.

  • Apply moisturizer or aloe vera lotion or gel. This may soothe the area and prevent dryness as the wound heals.
  • If needed, take an over-the-counter pain reliever. Nonprescription products include ibuprofen (, naproxen and acetaminophen
  • Consider a tetanus shot. Make sure that your tetanus booster is up to date. Doctors recommend people get a tetanus shot at least every 10 years.

Whether your burn was minor or serious, use sunscreen and moisturizer regularly once the wound is healed.

Medications and wound healing products

For major burns, various medications and products are used to encourage healing.

  • Water-based treatments. Your care team may use techniques such as ultrasound mist therapy to clean and stimulate the wound tissue.
  • Fluids to prevent dehydration. You may need intravenous (IV) fluids to prevent dehydration and organ failure.
  • Pain and anxiety medications. Healing burns can be incredibly painful. You may need morphine and anti-anxiety medications — particularly for dressing changes.
  • Burn creams and ointments. Your care team can select from a variety of topical products for wound healing. These help keep the wound moist, reduce pain, prevent infection and speed healing.
  • Your care team may also use various specialty wound dressings. These create a moist environment that fights infection and helps the burn heal.
  • Drugs that fight infection. If you develop an infection, you may need IV antibiotics.
  • Tetanus shot. Your doctor might recommend a tetanus shot after a burn injury.

Physical and occupational therapy

If the burned area is large, especially if it covers any joints, you may need physical therapy exercises. These can help stretch the skin so the joints can remain flexible. Other types of exercises can improve muscle strength and coordination. And occupational therapy may help if you have difficulty doing your normal daily activities.

Surgical and other procedures

You may need one or more of the following procedures:

  • Breathing assistance..
  • Tube feeding..
  • Easing blood flow around the wound.
  • Skin grafts.
  • Plastic surgery.


Be alert to burn risks outside the home, especially if you work in places with open flames, chemicals or superheated materials.

To reduce the risk of common household burns:

  • Never leave items cooking on the stove unattended.
  • Turn pot handles toward the rear of the stove.
  • Keep hot liquids out of the reach of children and pets.
  • Keep electrical appliances away from water.
  • Test food temperatures before serving a child. Don’t heat a baby’s bottle in the microwave.
  • Never cook while wearing loosefitting clothes that could catch fire over the stove.
  • If a small child is present, block his or her access to heat sources such as a stove, outdoor grill, fireplace and space heater.
  • Before placing a child in a car seat, check for hot straps or buckles.
  • Unplug irons and similar devices when not in use. Store them out of reach of small children.
  • Cover unused electrical outlets with safety caps. Keep electrical cords and wires out of the way so that children don’t chew on them.
  • If you must smoke, avoid smoking in the house and especially never smoke in bed.
  • Check your smoke detectors and change their batteries regularly.
  • Keep a fire extinguisher on every floor of your house.
  • Keep chemicals, lighters and matches out of the reach of children.
  • Set your water heater’s thermostat below 120 F (48.9 C) to prevent scalding. Test bath water before placing a child in it.


First Aid


Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a first aid technique that can be used if someone is not breathing properly or if their heart has stopped.

Usually we use the acronym of CAB — compression, airway, breathing — to help people remember the order to perform the steps of CPR.


Compression: Restore blood circulation

  1. Put the person on his or her back on a firm surface.
  2. Kneel next to the person’s neck and shoulders.
  3. Place the heel of one hand over the center of the person’s chest, between the nipples. Place your other hand on top of the first hand. Keep your elbows straight and position your shoulders directly above your hands.
  4. Use your upper body weight (not just your arms) as you push straight down on (compress) the chest at least 2 inches (approximately 5 centimeters). Push hard at a rate of about 100 compressions a minute.
  5. If you haven’t been trained in CPR, continue chest compressions until there are signs of movement or until emergency medical personnel take over. If you have been trained in CPR, go on to checking the airway and rescue breathing.

Airway: Clear the airway

  1. If you’re trained in CPR and you’ve performed 30 chest compression, open the person’s airway using the head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver. Put your palm on the person’s forehead and gently tilt the head back. Then with the other hand, gently lift the chin forward to open the airway.
  2. Check for normal breathing, taking no more than five or 10 seconds. Look for chest motion, listen for normal breath sounds, and feel for the person’s breath on your cheek and ear. Gasping is not considered to be normal breathing. If the person isn’t breathing normally and you are trained in CPR, begin mouth-to-mouth breathing. If you believe the person is unconscious from a heart attack and you haven’t been trained in emergency procedures, skip mouth-to-mouth breathing and continue chest compression.

Breathing: Breathe for the person

Rescue breathing can be mouth-to-mouth breathing or mouth-to-nose breathing if the mouth is seriously injured or can’t be opened.

  1. With the airway open (using the head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver), pinch the nostrils shut for mouth-to-mouth breathing and cover the person’s mouth with yours, making a seal.
  2. Prepare to give two rescue breaths. Give the first rescue breath — lasting one second — and watch to see if the chest rises. If it does rise, give the second breath. If the chest doesn’t rise, repeat the head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver and then give the second breath. Thirty chest compression followed by two rescue breaths is considered one cycle.
  3. Resume chest compression to restore circulation.
  4. If the person has not begun moving after five cycles (about two minutes) and an automated external defibrillator (AED) is available, apply it and follow the prompts. Administer one shock, then resume CPR — starting with chest compression — for two more minutes before administering a second shock. If an AED isn’t available, go to step 5 below.
  5. Continue CPR until there are signs of movement or emergency medical personnel take over.

1. CALL 

Check the victim for unresponsiveness. If the person is not responsive and not breathing or not breathing normally. Call for emergency help.


If the victim is still not breathing normally, coughing or moving, begin chest compression.  Push down in the center of the chest 2 inches 30 times. Pump hard and fast at the rate of at least 100/minute, faster than once per second.


Tilt the head back and lift the chin. Pinch nose and cover the mouth with yours and blow until you see the chest rise. Give 2 breaths.  Each breath should take 1 second.


NOTE: This ratio is the same for one-person & two-person CPR.  In two-person CPR the person pumping the chest stops while the other gives mouth-to-mouth breathing.


First Aid

Cut or Lacerations

Take the following steps for minor cuts.

1. Stop the Bleeding

  • Apply direct pressure on the area.

2. Clean and Protect

  • Clean the area with warm water and gentle soap.
  • Apply an antibiotic ointment to reduce chance of infection.
  • Put a sterile bandage on the area. In some people, antibiotic ointments may cause a rash. If this happens, stop using the ointment.

3. Call a Health Care Provider

Call a health care provider if:

  • The cut is deep or over a joint
  • You cannot get the cut or laceration clean
  • The injury is a deep puncture wound or the person has not had a recent (within the last 5 to 10 years) tetanus shot or booster
  • The cut is from a human or animal bite

4. Follow Up

  • For a minor cut or laceration, remove bandage after a couple of days to promote healing.
  • See a health care provider if the cut doesn’t heal or shows signs of infection, including redness, swelling, pus, or excessive pain.


Food & Nutrition Food List

Vitamin B 12

What Is Vitamin B12?

Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is a nutrient you need for good health. It’s one of eight B vitamins that help the body convert the food you eat into glucose, which gives you energy. Vitamin B12 has a number of additional functions. It is needed for:

  • production of elements of DNA
  • production of red blood cells
  • regeneration of bone marrow and the lining of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts
  • maintaining the health of the nervous system and spinal cord
  • prevention of megaloblastic anemia

How Much B12 Do I Need?

The amount of vitamin B12 you need is determined primarily by your age. Below the dietary need is given in micrograms:

  • birth to 6 months: 0.4 mcg
  • infants 7–12 months: 0.5 mcg
  • children 1–3 years: 0.9 mcg
  • children 4–8 years: 1.2 mcg
  • children 9–13 years: 1.8 mcg
  • teens 14–18 years: 2.4 mcg
  • adults: 2.4 mcg
  • pregnant teens and women: 2.6 mcg
  • breastfeeding teens and women: 2.8 mcg

Vitamin B12 is found naturally in foods that come from animals, including meat, fish, eggs, and dairy products. It also may be found in some fortified cereals and nutritional yeast.

Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency

Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency include:

  • shakiness
  • muscle weakness
  • stiff, spastic muscles
  • fatigue
  • incontinence
  • low blood pressure
  • mood disturbances

The most serious condition associated with vitamin B12 deficiency is megaloblastic anemia. This is a chronic blood disorder in which the bone marrow produces overly large, immature blood cells. As a result, the body doesn’t have enough healthy red blood cells to carry oxygen around the body.

Do Older Adults Need More B12?

Older adults are in the age group most likely to be deficient in vitamin B12.It can:

  • reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke
  • benefit memory
  • offer protection against Alzheimer’s disease
  • improve balance

How Do I Know if I Have Vitamin B12 Deficiency?

A simple blood test can determine the B12 levels in your body. If your stores are low, your doctor may prescribe a supplement. Supplemental vitamin B12 is available in capsules form, in tablets form. In some cases, your doctor may prefer to use injections to increase vitamin B12 levels.

You should aware of vitamin B12 in your diet, but you don’t need to be overly concerned about if you’re not in an at-risk group. As with most nutrients, it’s best if you can get the vitamin B12 you need from the food you eat. For ample stores of vitamin B12, eat a well-rounded diet that includes meat, fish, eggs, and dairy products.


Food & Nutrition Food List

Vitamin B

The Symptoms of Vitamin B Deficiency

The Symptoms of Vitamin B Deficiency

Vitamin B12

What it does: Vitamin B12 helps regulate the nervous system. It also plays a role in growth and red blood cell formation.

Vitamin B12 is found primarily in meat and dairy products, so strict vegetarians are at risk for a deficiency.

What happens if you don’t get enough: Vitamin B12 deficiencies can lead to

  • anemia and confusion in elderly people.
  • The identifiable B12 deficiencies exhibite megaloblastic anemia.
  • Psychological problems such as dementia, paranoia, depression, and behavioral problems can result from a vitamin B12 deficiency.
  • People with B12 deficiencies often report tingling in their feet and hands

Vitamin B6

Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) helps the body turn food into energy. It can also help the body fight infections. Pregnant and breastfeeding women need it to help their babies’ brains develop normally.

B6 can be found in fish, poultry, liver, potatoes, and non-citrus fruit.


  • Insufficient amounts of B6 can result in anemia as well as skin disorders, such as a rash or cracks around the mouth.
  • A lack of B6 also can cause depression, confusion, or a susceptibility to infections.

Vitamins B1 and B2

Vitamin B1 is also called thiamin. Vitamin B2 is also called riboflavin. These vitamins also help convert food into energy. Vitamin B1 has neurological benefits, and vitamin B2 helps maintain proper eyesight.

Most people get B1 from breakfast cereals and whole grains. B2 also can be found in whole grains, as well as in milk, eggs, and dark green vegetables.

  • Deficiencies in vitamins B1 and B2 generally don’t pose a problem . It can become an issue with alcoholics, however, presenting issues such as confusion and cracks along the sides of the mouth.

Vitamin B9

Vitamin B9 is also called folic acid. Like most B vitamins, it fosters the growth of red blood cells. But it also reduces the risk of birth defects.

Vitamin B9 can be found in many foods, from meats to grains to citrus fruits.

  • Without enough B9, a person can develop diarrhea or anemia. Pregnant women with a B9 deficiency could give birth to babies with defects.


Food & Nutrition Food List

Vitamin A

Facts About Vitamin A

What is vitamin A?

“Vitamin A” is the blanket term for retinoids, biologically active compounds that occur naturally in both plant and animal tissues.

The vitamin A that comes from animal sources is fat-soluble, and in the form of retinoic acid, retinal and retinol.

The vitamin A in fruits and vegetables is in the form of  “provitamin A” -vitamin A precursors also known as  carotenoids, which must be converted by the human body into usable retinoids. They are water-soluble and do not accumulate in the body, so toxicity is rare.

Why is vitamin A necessary?

  • Vitamin A plays a vital role in bone growth,reproduction and immune system health
  • It also helps the skin and mucous membranes repel bacteria and viruses more effectively.
  • It is essential to healthy vision, and may slow declining retinal function in people with retinitis pigmentosa

What are the signs of a deficiency?

Vitamin A deficiency is common in developing countries.

  • One of the earliest signs of a deficiency is night blindness. Permanent blindness can result if the deficiency is left unchecked.
  • Vitamin A deficiency also allows opportunistic infectious diseases such as measles and pneumonia to become deadly.

How much need?

  • About 5000IU(adult)
  • About 6000IU(pregnant women)
  • About 8000IU(breast feeding mother)
  • About 2000-4500Iu(1-12years old children)

How do you get enough vitamin A from foods?

  • The richest animal source of retinols is beef liver.
  • The best natural sources of carotenoids are fruits and vegetables, including
  • carrots
  • spinach
  • kale
  • butternut squash
  • cantaloupe
  • mangoes
  • pumpkins and
  • pumpkins and
  • sweet potatoes.

Are there risks associated with too much vitamin A?

Excessive, chronic intake of some forms of vitamin A can be toxic. Avoid taking supplemental vitamin A as retinol or retinoic acid, and instead use plant-derived vitamin A precursors such as beta-carotene (in addition to other mixed carotenoids). Also avoid concentrated animal sources such as cod liver oil (although some forms of cod liver oil are vitamin A reduced and are safe – check the label). Warning symptoms of overdose include hair loss, confusion, liver damage and bone loss.


Food & Nutrition Food List

Vitamin C

Facts on Vitamin C

Vitamin C (also known as ascorbic acid) is abundant in vegetables and fruits. A water-soluble vitamin and powerful antioxidant, it helps the body form and maintain connective tissue, including bones, blood vessels, and skin.

Why is vitamin C necessary, what does vitamin C do and what are some vitamin C benefits?

Vitamin C helps to repair and regenerate tissues, protect against heart disease, aid in the absorption of iron, prevent scurvy, and decrease total and LDL (“bad”) cholesterol and triglycerides.

Research indicates that vitamin C may help protect against a variety of cancers by combating free radicals, and helping neutralize the effects of nitrites (preservatives found in some packaged foods that may raise the risk of certain forms of cancer).

Supplemental vitamin C may also lessen the duration and symptoms of a common cold; help delay or prevent cataracts; and support healthy immune function.

What are the signs of a vitamin C deficiency?

Deficiency symptoms include

  • fatigue
  • muscle weakness
  • joint and muscle aches
  • bleeding gums
  • leg rashes
  • Prolonged deficiency can cause scurvy, a rare but potentially severe illness.

How much, and what kind, does an adult need?

The recommended daily intake for adults: is

  • men, 90 mg per day
  • women, 75 mg per day
  • pregnant women, 85 mg per day
  • breastfeeding women, 120 mg per day.

Smokers may benefit from a higher intake.

How much does a child need?

Adequate Intakes (AIs):

  • infants 0-6 months old, 40 mg per day
  • infants 7-12 months old, 50 mg per day.
  • toddlers 1-3 years old, 15 mg per day
  • children 4-8 years old, 25 mg
  • children 9-13 years old, 45 mg per day
  • male teens 14-18 years old, 75 mg per day
  • female teens 14-18 years old, 65 mg.

How do you get enough vitamin C from foods?

Vitamin C is easy to get through foods, as many fruits (especially citrus) and vegetables contain vitamin C. Good sources include:

  1. Apples
  2. Asparagus
  3. Berries
  4. Broccoli
  5. Cabbage
  6. Melon (cantaloupe, honeydew, watermelon)
  7. Cauliflower
  8. Citrus fruits (lemons, limes, oranges)
  9. Kiwi
  10. Fortified foods (breads, grains, cereal)
  11. Dark leafy greens (kale, spinach)
  12. Peppers (especially red bell peppers, which have among the highest per-serving vitamin C content)
  13. Potatoes
  14. Tomatoes

Are there any risks associated with too much vitamin C?

When obtained from food sources and supplements in the recommended dosages, vitamin C is generally regarded as safe. Side effects are rarely reported, but include nausea, vomiting, heartburn, abdominal cramps, and headache. For most healthy individuals, the body can only hold and use about 250mg of vitamin C a day, and any excess is lost though urine. At times of illness, during recovery from injury, or under conditions of increased oxidative stress (including smoking), the body can use greater amounts. High doses of vitamin C (greater than 2,000 mg/day) may contribute to the formation of kidney stone as well as cause severe diarrhoea, nausea, and gastritis.


Food & Nutrition Food List

Vitamin D

What is vitamin D?

Vitamin D, often referred to as the “sunshine vitamin,” is actually a fat-soluble hormone that the body can synthesize naturally. Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) is synthesized by plants, and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is synthesized by humans when skin is exposed to ultraviolet-B (UVB) rays from sunlight.

Why is vitamin D necessary?

  • Vitamin D helps in the absorption of calcium and promotes bone mineralization, which may prevent or slow the progression of osteoporosis.
  • It also helps to strengthen the immune system and protect against a number of serious diseases, including rickets and osteomalacia.
  • Vitamin D may also provide protection from hypertension ,psoriasis, several autoimmune diseases (including multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis, and reduce the incidence of fractured bones. In addition, growing evidence has demonstrated its important role in defending against cancer (studies link a deficiency of vitamin D to as many as 18 different cancers).

What are the signs of a deficiency?

Deficiencies of vitamin D are common, especially in industrialized countries where sun exposure is typically infrequent. Low levels of vitamin D may be indicated by porous bones, weak muscles and easy fracturing.

How much vitamin D should adults take?

The daily Adequate Intake (AI) for adults is 5 mcg (200 IU) daily for males, female, and pregnant/lactating women under the age of 50. People 50 to 70 years old should get 10 mcg daily (400 IU) daily, and those over 70 should get 15 mcg daily (600 IU). Anyone with vitamin D deficiencies should discuss intake levels with his or her physician.

How much vitamin D should children take?

AI for children from birth until 5 years of age should take 5 mcg per day (200 IU).


Mainly sunlight

Food Source: Mushrooms, Cheese, Fish Eggs, Egg Yolk, Fortified Milk & Foods, Oily Fish, Red Meat, Liver etc.