Categories
খাদ্য ও পুষ্টি

খাদ্য ও পুষ্টি

খাদ্য ছাড়া আমাদের জীবন ধারণ সম্ভব নয়। দৈনন্দিন কাজকর্ম এবং চলাফেরা করার জন্য সবল, রোগমুক্ত ও সুস্থ শরীর প্রয়োজন।  সুস্থ শরীর বজায় রাখার জন্য আমরা যা কিছু খেয়ে থাকি তা-ই খাদ্য।

খাদ্যের কাজ

  • শরীর গঠন ও বৃদ্ধিসাধন এবং ক্ষয়পূরণ
  • শরীরে তাপশক্তি ও কর্মক্ষমতা যোগানো
  • শরীর রোগমুক্ত রাখা
  • অসুস্থ শরীরকে আরোগ্য লাভে সহায়তা করা

খাদ্যের শ্রেণীবিভাগ

কাজভেদে খাদ্যকে তিনভাগে ভাগ করা যায়।

যেমনঃ

ক. শক্তিদায়ক খাদ্য

এ সব খাদ্যের প্রধান ভূমিকা হলো, শক্তি ও তাপ উৎপাদন করে শরীরকে সতেজ ও কর্মক্ষম রাখা।  শরীরের অভ্যন্তরীণ ক্রিয়াকর্ম যেমনঃ শ্বাসপ্রশ্বাস ক্রিয়া, হৃৎপিন্ড ও অন্যান্য দেহ যন্ত্রের ক্রিয়া, পরিপাক ক্রিয়া, মলমূত্র নিষ্কাষণ ক্রিয়া এবং  দৈনন্দিন জীবনে সকল কাজকর্ম সম্পাদনে শক্তি প্রয়োজন। যে সকল  খাদ্য সামগ্রী হতে শক্তি পাওয়া  যায় তা হলোঃ

  • শস্য জাতীয় খাদ্য (যেমন  চাল, গম, ভূট্টা, জোয়ার ইত্যাদি)
  • মূল জাতীয় খাদ্য (যেমন  গোল আলু, মিষ্টি আলু, মেটে আলু, কাসাবা ইত্যাদি)
  • তেল বা চর্বি জাতীয় খাদ্য (যেমন সব রকমের তেল, ঘি,  মাংসের চর্বি  ইত্যাদি)
  •  চিনি, গুড়  ও মিষ্টি  জাতীয় খাদ্য

খ. শরীর গঠন, বৃদ্ধিসাধন এবং ক্ষয়পূরণকারী খাদ্য

এ সকল খাদ্য মানবদেহে মূলত: শরীরের কাঠামো তৈরী বা শরীর গঠন, শরীরের বৃদ্ধি সাধন ও শরীরের ক্ষয় পূরণে কাজ করে থাকে।  এসব খাদ্যের মধ্যে প্রাণীজ উৎস থেকে প্রাপ্ত:

  • ডিম
  •  দুধ
  •  মাছ
  • মাংস

এবং উদ্ভিজ্জ উৎস থেকে প্রাপ্ত:

  • সব রকমের ডাল
  •  মটর শুঁটি
  •  সীমের বীচি
  • কাঁঠালের বীচি
  • বাদাম প্রভৃতি উল্লেখযোগ্য।

গ. রোগ প্রতিরোধক খাদ্য

এ সব খাদ্যের প্রধান ভূমিকা হলো, শরীরের রোগ প্রতিরোধ ক্ষমতা বৃদ্ধি, নানা প্রকার রোগ-ব্যাধি কিংবা অসুস্থতা হতে শরীরকে রক্ষা করা। রোগ প্রতিরোধক সস্তা খাদ্যের মধ্যে রয়েছে :

  • রঙ্গিন শাকসব্জি
  •  ফলমূল

খাদ্য উপাদানের শ্রেণী বিভাগ

খাদ্য উপাদানকে নিম্নের ৬টি ভাগে ভাগ করা যেতে পারে :

  • শ্বেতসার বা শর্করা ( উৎস- চাল, গম, ভুট্টা, চিড়া, মুড়ি, চিনি, গুড়, আলু ও মূল জাতীয় অন্যান্য খাদ্য)
  • আমিষ  ( উৎস – মাছ, মাংস, ডিম, দুধ, ডাল, মটর শুঁটি, সীমের বীচি, কাঁঠালের বীচি, বাদাম ইত্যাদি)
  • স্নেহ জাতীয় খাদ্য (উৎস -তেল, ঘি, মাখন, চর্বি  ইত্যাদি)
  • খাদ্যপ্রাণ বা ভিটামিন (উৎস – রঙ্গিন শাক-সব্জি ও ফল, ডিম, দুধ, কলিজা ইত্যাদি)
  • খনিজ লবণ  (উৎস – রঙ্গিন শাক-সব্জি ও ফল, ডিম, দুধ, কলিজা, মাংস, ছোট মাছ ইত্যাদি)
  • নিরাপদ পানি

খাদ্য উপাদানের কাজ, উৎস ও মাথাপিছু দৈনিক প্রয়োজনীয় পরিমাণ

খাদ্যের মুখ্য উপাদান

  •  শ্বেতসার বা শর্করা
  •  আমিষ
  •  স্নেহ

খাদ্যের গৌণ উপাদান

  • খাদ্যপ্রাণ বা ভিটামিন
  •  খনিজ লবণ
  •  নিরাপদ পানি

খাদ্যের মুখ্য উপাদান

শ্বেতসার বা শর্করা

কাজ

  • শরীরে তাপ শক্তি সরবরাহ করে
  • তেল / চর্বি জাতীয় পদার্থ দহনে সাহায্য করে
  • আমিষের প্রধান কাজ করতে সহায়তা করে এবং

উৎস

  • চাল, গম, ভুট্টা, চিনি, গুড়, মিষ্টি, আলু, মিষ্টি আলু, কচু ইত্যাদি

মাথাপিছু দৈনিক প্রয়োজনীয় পরিমাণ (আহারোপযোগী )

  • মোট প্রয়োজনীয় খাদ্য শক্তির শতকরা প্রায় ৫০-৬০ ভাগ

আমিষ

কাজ

  • দেহের গঠন ও বৃদ্ধি সাধন করে
  • রোগ প্রতিরোধ ক্ষমতা বৃদ্ধি করে
  • শরীরে তাপ শক্তি সরবরাহ করে
  • শরীরে জৈব রাসায়নিক প্রক্রিয়ায় সহায়তা করে

উৎস

  • প্রাণিজ উৎস যেমন-মাছ, মাংস, দুধ, ডিম, কলিজা
  • উদ্ভিজ্জ উৎস যেমন- সয়াবিন, কাঁঠালের বীচি, সীমের বীচি, ডাল, বাদাম, মটরশুঁটি ইত্যাদি

মাথাপিছু দৈনিক প্রয়োজনীয় পরিমাণ (আহারোপযোগী)

  • প্রতি কেজি শরীরের ওজনের জন্য ১ গ্রাম ( পূর্ণ বয়স্কদের জন্য )
  • প্রতি কেজি শরীরের ওজনের জন্য ২-৩ গ্রাম ( ৪ বছরের শিশুর জন্য )
  • প্রতি কেজি শরীরের ওজনের জন্য ১.৭ গ্রাম ( ৪-১৮ বছর বয়স পর্যন্ত )
  • প্রতি কেজি শরীরের ওজনের জন্য ১.৫ গ্রাম ( গর্ভবতী ও প্রসূতীর জন্য )

স্নেহ

কাজ

  • দেহে শক্তি সরবরাহ করে
  • দেহের ত্বককে মসৃণ রাখে
  • খাবার সুস্বাদু করে ও তেল বা চর্বিতে দ্রবণীয় ভিটামিন শরীরে কাজে লাগাতে সাহায্য করে

উৎস

  • প্রাণিজ উৎস যেমন-ঘি, মাখন, চর্বি
  • উদ্ভিজ্জ উৎস যেমন-সয়াবিন তেল, সরিষার তেল, তিলের তেল, সূর্যমুখীর তেল, বাদাম, ডালডা, নারকেল (শুকনা )

মাথাপিছু দৈনিক প্রয়োজনীয় পরিমাণ (আহারোপযোগী)

  • প্রায় ৩৫-৪০ গ্রাম ( পূর্ণ বয়স্কের জন্য )
  • প্রতি কেজি শরীরের ওজনের জন্য দৈনিক ২-৩ গ্রাম ( ১ বছর পর্যন্ত শিশুর জন্য )

 

Categories
Disease & Condition

Acute kidney Injury

Acute kidney failure

Acute kidney failure occurs when your kidneys suddenly become unable to filter waste products from your blood. When your kidneys lose their filtering ability, dangerous levels of wastes may accumulate, and your blood’s chemical makeup may get out of balance.

Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of acute kidney failure may include:

  • Decreased urine output, occasionally urine output remains normal
  • Fluid retention, causing swelling in your legs, ankles or feet
  • Drowsiness
  • Shortness of breath
  • Fatigue
  • Confusion
  • Nausea
  • Seizures or coma in severe cases
  • Chest pain or pressure

Sometimes acute kidney failure causes no signs or symptoms and is detected through lab tests done for another reason.

When to see a doctor

Make an appointment with your doctor if you have any signs or symptoms of acute kidney failure.

Causes

Acute kidney failure can occur when:

  • You have a condition that slows blood flow to your kidneys
  • You experience direct damage to your kidneys
  • Your kidneys’ urine drainage tubes (ureters) become blocked and wastes can’t leave your body through your urine

Risk factors

Conditions that can increase your risk of acute kidney failure include:

  • Being hospitalized, especially for a serious condition that requires intensive care
  • Advanced age
  • Blockages in the blood vessels in your arms or legs (peripheral artery disease)
  • Diabetes
  • High blood pressure
  • Heart failure
  • Kidney diseases
  • Liver diseases

Complications

Potential complications of acute kidney failure include:

  • Acute kidney failure may lead to a buildup of fluid in your lungs, which can cause shortness of breath
  • Chest pain
  • Muscle weakness
  • Permanent kidney damage
  • Acute kidney failure can lead to loss of kidney function and, ultimately, death

Tests and diagnosis

If your signs and symptoms suggest that you have acute kidney failure, your doctor may recommend certain tests and procedures to verify your diagnosis. These may include:

  • Urine output measurements
  • Urine tests
  • Blood tests
  • Imaging tests
  • kidney biopsy

Treatments and drugs

Treatment for acute kidney failure typically requires a hospital stay. Most people with acute kidney failure are already hospitalized. How long you’ll stay in the hospital depends on the reason for your acute kidney failure and how quickly your kidneys recover.

In some cases, you may be able to recover at home.

Treating the underlying cause of your kidney failure

Treatment for acute kidney failure involves identifying the illness or injury that originally damaged your kidneys. Your treatment options depend on what’s causing your kidney failure.

Treating complications until your kidneys recover

Your doctor will also work to prevent complications and allow your kidneys time to heal. Treatments that help prevent complications include:

  • Treatments to balance the amount of fluids in your blood
  • Medications to control blood potassium
  • Medications to restore blood calcium levels
  • Dialysis to remove toxins from your blood

Lifestyle and home remedies

  • Choose lower potassium foods
  • Avoid products with added salt
  • Limit phosphorus

Prevention

  • Pay attention to labels when taking over-the-counter (OTC) pain medications such as aspirin (Ecosprin), acetaminophen (Napa, others) and ibuprofen (Inflam, others). Taking too much of these medications may increase your risk of acute kidney failure.
  • If you have kidney disease or another condition that increases your risk of acute kidney failure, such as diabetes or high blood pressure, stay on track with treatment goals and follow your doctor’s recommendations to manage your condition.
  • Make a healthy lifestyle a priority. Be active; eat a sensible, balanced diet.

 

Categories
Disease & Condition

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

ARDS

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) occurs when fluid builds up in the tiny, elastic air sacs (alveoli) in your lungs. More fluid in your lungs means less oxygen can reach your bloodstream.

Symptoms

  • Severe shortness of breath
  • Labored and unusually rapid breathing
  • Low blood pressure
  • Confusion and extreme tiredness

When to see a doctor

ARDS usually follows a major illness or injury, and most people who are affected are already hospitalized.

Causes

The most common underlying causes of ARDS include:

  • The most common cause of ARDS is sepsis, a serious and widespread infection of the bloodstream.
  • Inhalation of harmful substances. Breathing high concentrations of smoke or chemical fumes can result in ARDS, as can inhaling (aspirating) vomit.
  • Severe pneumonia.
  • Head, chest or other major injury.

Risk factors

People who have a history of chronic alcoholism are at higher risk of developing ARDS. They’re also more likely to die of ARDS.

Complications

  • Scarring in the lungs (pulmonary fibrosis)
  • Collapsed lung (pneumothorax)
  • Blood clots
  • Abnormal lung function
  • Memory, cognitive and emotional problems

Tests and diagnosis

Imaging

  • Chest X-ray
  • Computerized tomography (CT)

Lab tests

  • AVG Analysis
  • Complete Blood Count(CBC)

Heart tests

Because the signs and symptoms of ARDS are similar to those of certain heart problems, your doctor may recommend heart tests such as:

  • A sonogram of the heart, this test can reveal problems with the structures and the function of your heart.

Treatments and drugs

The first goal in treating ARDS is to improve the levels of oxygen in your blood. Without oxygen, your organs can’t function properly.

Oxygen

To get more oxygen into your bloodstream, your doctor will likely use:

  • Supplemental oxygen
  • Mechanical ventilation

Fluids

Carefully managing the amount of intravenous fluids is crucial.

Medication

People with ARDS usually are given medication to:

  • Prevent and treat infections
  • Relieve pain and discomfort
  • Prevent clots in the legs and lungs
  • Minimize gastric reflux
  • Sedate

Lifestyle and home remedies

If you’re recovering from ARDS, the following suggestions can help protect your lungs:

  • Quit smoking
  • Quit alcohol
  • Get vaccinated

 

Categories
Disease & Condition

Acute Liver Failure

Acute Liver Failure

Acute liver failure is loss of liver function that occurs rapidly — in days or weeks —usually in a person who has no pre-existing liver disease. Acute liver failure is less common than chronic liver failure, which develops more slowly.

Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of acute liver failure may include:

  • Yellowing of your skin and eyeballs (jaundice)
  • Pain in your upper right abdomen
  • Abdominal swelling
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • A general sense of feeling unwell (malaise)
  • Disorientation or confusion
  • Sleepiness

When to see a doctor

Acute liver failure can develop quickly in an otherwise healthy person, and it is life-threatening. Make an appointment with your doctor if you have above signs or symptoms.

Causes

Acute liver failure occurs when liver cells are damaged significantly and are no longer able to function. Potential causes include:

  • Acetaminophen overdose.
  • Some prescription medications, including antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and anticonvulsants, can cause acute liver failure.
  • Some Herbal drugs and supplements have been linked to acute liver failure.
  • Hepatitis and other viruses. Hepatitis A, hepatitis B and hepatitis E can cause acute liver failure. Other viruses that can cause acute liver failure include Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus.
  • Toxins of the poisonous wild mushroom Amanita phalloides, which is sometimes mistaken for edible species.
  • Autoimmune disease like autoimmune hepatitis.
  • Vascular diseases, such as Budd-Chiari syndrome.
  • Metabolic disease such as Wilson’s disease and acute fatty liver of pregnancy.
  • Cancer that either begins in or spreads to your liver can cause your liver to fail.

Many cases of acute liver failure have no apparent cause.

Complications

Acute liver failure often causes complications, including:

  • Excessive fluid in the brain (cerebral edema)
  • Bleeding and bleeding disorders
  • Kidney failure

Tests and diagnosis

Tests and procedures used to diagnose acute liver failure include:

  • Blood tests. Blood tests to determine how well your liver is functioning may include the prothrombin time test, which measures how long it takes your blood to clot. With acute liver failure, blood won’t clot as quickly as it should.
  • Imaging tests such as ultrasound.
  • Examination of liver tissue (liver biopsy).

Treatments and drugs

Treatments for acute liver failure

  • Medications to reverse poisoning.
  • Liver transplant. When acute liver failure can’t be reversed, the only treatment may be a liver transplant.

Treatments for complications

Your doctor will work to control signs and symptoms you’re experiencing and try to prevent complications caused by acute liver failure. This care may include:

  • Relieving pressure caused by excess fluid in the brain.
  • Screening for infections.
  • Preventing severe bleeding.

Prevention

  • Follow instructions on medications
  • Tell your doctor about all your medicines
  • Avoid alcohol
  • Avoid risky behavior
  • Get vaccinated
  • Avoid contact with other people’s blood and body fluids
  • Don’t eat wild mushrooms
  • Take care with aerosol sprays
  • Watch what gets on your skin
  • Maintain a healthy weight

 

Categories
Disease & Condition

Amenorrhoea

Amenorrhoea

Amenorrhea is the absence of menstruation — one or more missed menstrual periods..

The most common cause of amenorrhea is pregnancy.

Symptoms

The main sign of amenorrhea is the absence of menstrual periods. Depending on the cause of amenorrhea, you might experience other signs or symptoms along with the absence of periods, such as:

  • Milky nipple discharge
  • Hair loss
  • Headache
  • Vision changes
  • Excess facial hair
  • Pelvic pain
  • Acne

When to see a doctor

Consult your doctor if you’ve missed at least three menstrual periods in a row, or if you’ve never had a menstrual period and you’re age 15 or older.

Causes:

Amenorrhea can occur for a variety of reasons. Some are normal during the course of a woman’s life, while others may be a side effect of medication or a sign of a medical problem.

Natural amenorrhea

During the normal course of your life, you may experience amenorrhea for natural reasons, such as:

  • Pregnancy
  • Breast-feeding
  • Menopause

Contraceptives

Some women who take birth control pills may not have periods. Even after stopping oral contraceptives, it may take some time before regular ovulation and menstruation return. Contraceptives that are injected or implanted also may cause amenorrhea, as can some types of intrauterine devices.

Medications

Certain medications can cause menstrual periods to stop, including some types of:

  • Antipsychotics
  • Cancer chemotherapy
  • Antidepressants
  • Blood pressure drugs
  • Allergy medications

Lifestyle factors

Sometimes lifestyle factors contribute to amenorrhea, for instance:

  • Low body weight. Excessively low body weight — about 10 percent under normal weight — interrupts many hormonal functions in your body, potentially halting ovulation.
  • Excessive exercise.
  • Mental stress.

Hormonal imbalance

Many types of medical problems can cause hormonal imbalance, including:

  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
  • Thyroid malfunction.
  • Pituitary tumor.
  • Premature menopause.

Structural problems

Problems with the sexual organs themselves also can cause amenorrhea. Examples include:

  • Uterine scarring.
  • Lack of reproductive organs.
  • Structural abnormality of the vagina.

Risk factors

Factors that may increase your risk of amenorrhea may include:

  • Family history. If other women in your family have experienced amenorrhea, you may have inherited a predisposition for the problem.
  • Eating disorders. If you have an eating disorder, such as anorexia or bulimia, you are at higher risk of developing amenorrhea.
  • Athletic training. Rigorous athletic training can increase your risk of amenorrhea.

Complications

Complications of amenorrhea may include:

  • If you don’t ovulate and have menstrual periods, you can’t become pregnant.
  • If your amenorrhea is caused by low estrogen levels, you may also be at risk of osteoporosis — a weakening of your bones.

 

Categories
Disease & Condition

Allergies

Allergies

Allergies occur when your immune system reacts to a foreign substance such as pollen, bee venom or pet dander that doesn’t cause a reaction in most people.

Symptoms

Allergy symptoms depend on the substance involved and can involve the airways, sinuses and nasal passages, skin, and digestive system. Allergic reactions can range from mild to severe. In some severe cases, allergies can trigger a life-threatening reaction known as anaphylaxis.

Hay fever, also called allergic rhinitis, may cause:

  • Sneezing
  • Itching of the nose, eyes or roof of the mouth
  • Runny, stuffy nose
  • Watery, red or swollen eyes (conjunctivitis)

A food allergy may cause:

  • Tingling mouth
  • Swelling of the lips, tongue, face or throat
  • Hives
  • Anaphylaxis

An insect sting allergy may cause:

  • A large area of swelling (edema) at the sting site
  • Itching or hives all over your body
  • Cough, chest tightness, wheezing or shortness of breath
  • Anaphylaxis

A drug allergy may cause:

  • Hives
  • Itchy skin
  • Rash
  • Facial swelling
  • Wheezing
  • Anaphylaxis

Atopic dermatitis, an allergic skin condition also called eczema, may cause skin to:

  • Itch
  • Redden
  • Flake or peel

Anaphylaxis

Some types of allergies, including allergies to foods and insect stings, have the potential to trigger a severe reaction known as anaphylaxis. A life-threatening medical emergency, this reaction can cause you to go into shock. Signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis include:

  • Loss of consciousness
  • A drop in blood pressure
  • Severe shortness of breath
  • Skin rash
  • Lightheadedness
  • A rapid, weak pulse
  • Nausea and vomiting

When to see a doctor

You might see a doctor if you have symptoms you think may be caused by an allergy, especially if you notice something that seems to trigger your allergies. If you have symptoms after starting a new medication, call the doctor who prescribed it right away.

Causes

Common allergy triggers include:

  • Airborne allergens, such as pollen, animal dander, dust mites and mold
  • Certain foods, particularly peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, soy, fish, shellfish, eggs and milk
  • Insect stings, such as bee stings or wasp stings
  • Medications, particularly penicillin or penicillin-based antibiotics
  • Latex or other substances you touch, which can cause allergic skin reactions

Risk factors

You may be at increased risk of developing an allergy if you:

  • Have a family history of asthma or allergies.
  • Are a child. Children are more likely to develop an allergy than are adults.
  • Have asthma or an allergic condition.

Complications

Having an allergy increases your risk of certain other medical problems, including:

  • Anaphylaxis is most commonly associated with food allergy, penicillin allergy and allergy to insect venom.
  • Asthma an immune system reaction that affects the airways and breathing. In many cases, asthma is triggered by exposure to an allergen in the environment (allergy-induced asthma).
  • Atopic dermatitis (eczema), sinusitis, and infections of the ears or lungs.
  • Fungal complications such as allergic fungal sinusitis and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, if you’re allergic to mold.

Tests and diagnosis

To evaluate whether you have an allergy, your doctor may:

  • Ask detailed questions about signs and symptoms
  • Perform a physical exam
  • Have you keep a detailed diary of symptoms and possible triggers

If you have a food allergy, your doctor may:

  • Ask you to keep a detailed diary of the foods you eat
  • Have you eliminate a food from your diet (elimination diet) — and then have you eat the food in question again to see if it causes a reaction

Your doctor may also recommend one or both of the following tests:

  • Skin test
  • Blood test

If your doctor suspects your problems are caused by something other than an allergy, you may need other tests to identify — or rule out — other medical problems.

Treatments and drugs

Allergy treatments include:

  • Allergen avoidance.
  • Medications to reduce symptoms.
  • For severe allergies or allergies not completely relieved by other treatment, your doctor may recommend allergen immunotherapy. This treatment involves a series of injections of purified allergen extracts, usually given over a period of a few years.
  • Emergency epinephrine.

Prevention

  • Avoid known triggers
  • Keep a diary
  • Wear a medical alert bracelet

 

Categories
Exercise & Fitness

A SMART Approach to Weight Loss

SMART Approach to Weight Loss

When it comes to weight loss, it’s easy to focus only on the number of pounds you need to lose without much thought given to lasting “lifestyle” changes. Successful weight loss is not so much about a number on the scale, it’s about adopting a lifestyle and setting goals that are based on changing the way you eat, exercise and behave. One way to do that is to use the SMART approach in creating a weight loss plan:

Specific:

Set goals that define specific behavioral changes. Instead of saying, “I’m going to lose weight,” redefine it and make it specific by saying, “I’m going to cut my calorie intake by 250 calories a day and exercise for 30 minutes a day.”

Measurable:

Set goals that are measurable and create ways to document progress. A measurable goal might be that you will lose 10% of your current body weight. Documenting progress could be in the form of keeping a food journal and exercise log. Measurable goals and documentation provides valuable feedback as you are progressing towards your goals and will increase your sense of accomplishment and motivation.

Action Oriented:

Clearly state the action that needs to be accomplished in order to achieve your goals. This allows you to actively work towards attaining them. For example, jogging for 30 minutes a day at a speed of 5 mph is an action oriented goal.

Realistic:

If your goals are not realistic, you’re setting yourself up for failure. Design your weight loss program by creating multiple short-term goals that are easily within reach. These will ultimately help you achieve your long-term goal. With each short-term goal success, you will gain the confidence and motivation that your weight loss goal can be achieved. If you’re having difficulty accomplishing a specific goal, make an adjustment or two so that it is more realistically attainable.

Timed:

Set a specific time frame to accomplish your goals. A series of timed short-term goals will serve as stepping stones to realize your long term goal. A time frame is also beneficial when it comes to needing to make some readjustments to goals that are not being met.

Based on the SMART approach, a simple weight loss program could look like this for a woman who is 5′ 7″ tall and weighs 171 pounds.

Long-term Goal:

  • Lose 12 pounds over the next 3 months for a BMI of 24.9. (Specific, measurable, action oriented, realistic, timed) See Fitness Partner’s BMI calculator.

Short-term Goal #1:

  • Over the next month (timed), lose 4 pounds (specific, measurable, action oriented and realistic) by cutting calorie intake to 1700 calories/day and briskly walking 30 minutes a day. (Specific, measurable, action oriented, realistic)
  • Track progress by keeping a food journal and documenting duration of exercise sessions each day. Weigh in every Monday morning and note weight in daily journal. (Action oriented and measurable documentation to provide feedback)

Short-term Goal #2:

  • Based on feedback and progress from last month, make any necessary adjustments required to accomplish the same goal as last month.
  • An additional change this month will be to add 30 minutes of strength training twice a week at the gym using 10-12 weight machines that target each major muscle group. (Specific, measurable, action oriented, realistic, timed) Strength training sessions will be noted in daily journal. (Action oriented and measurable documentation to provide feedback)

Short-term Goal #3

  • Based on feedback and progress from last month, make any necessary adjustments required to accomplish the same goal as last month.
  • An additional change this month will be to increase duration of brisk walks to 45 minutes a day and increase strength training sessions to 3 per week. (Specific, measurable, action oriented, realistic, timed) All will be documented in daily journal. (Action oriented and measurable documentation to provide feedback)

 

Categories
Exercise & Fitness

Getting Fit for Life

Exercise and Physical Activity: Getting Fit for Life

Exercise and physical activity are good for you, no matter how old you are. In fact, staying active can help you:

  • Keep and improve your strength so you can stay independent
  • Have more energy to do the things you want to do
  • Improve your balance
  • Prevent or delay some diseases like heart disease, diabetes, and osteoporosis
  • Perk up your mood and reduce depression

You don’t need to buy special clothes or belong to a gym to become more active. Physical activity can and should be part of your everyday life. Find things you like to do. Go for brisk walks. Ride a bike. Dance. Work around the house. Garden. Climb stairs. Swim. Rake leaves. Try different kinds of activities that keep you moving. Look for new ways to build physical activity into your daily routine.

Four Ways to Be Active

To get all of the benefits of physical activity, try all four types of exercise — 1) endurance, 2) strength, 3) balance, and 4) flexibility.

A. Try to build up to at least 30 minutes of activity that makes you breathe hard on most or all days of the week. Every day is best. That’s called an endurance activity because it builds your energy or “staying power.” You don’t have to be active for 30 minutes all at once. Ten minutes at a time is fine. How hard do you need to push yourself? If you can talk without any trouble at all, you are not working hard enough. If you can’t talk at all, it’s too hard.

Wall push-ups

  1. These push-ups will strengthen your arms, shoulders, and chest. Try this exercise during a TV commercial break.
    Face a wall, standing a little farther than arm’s length away, feet shoulder-width apart.
  2. Lean your body forward and put your palms flat against the wall at shoulder height and shoulder-width apart.
  3. Slowly breathe in as you bend your elbows and lower your upper body toward the wall in a slow, controlled motion. Keep your feet flat on the floor.
  4. Hold the position for 1 second.
  5. Breathe out and slowly push yourself back until your arms are straight.
  6. Repeat 10-15 times.
  7. Rest; then repeat 10-15 more times.

B. Keep using your muscles. Strength exercises build muscles. When you have strong muscles, you can get up from a chair by yourself, you can lift your grandchildren, and you can walk through the park.

Keeping your muscles in shape helps prevent falls that cause problems like broken hips. You are less likely to fall when your leg and hip muscles are strong.

Toe stands

This exercise will help make walking easier by strengthening your calves and ankles.

  1. Stand behind a sturdy chair, feet shoulder-width apart, holding on for balance. Breathe in slowly.
  2. Breathe out and slowly stand on tiptoes, as high as possible.
  3. Hold position for 1 second.
  4. Breathe in as you slowly lower heels to the floor.
  5. Repeat 10-15 times.
  6. Rest; then repeat 10-15 more times.

C. Do things to help your balance. Try standing on one foot, then the other. If you can, don’t hold on to anything for support.

Stand on one foot

You can do this exercise while waiting for the bus or standing in line at the grocery. For an added challenge, you can modify the exercise to improve your balance.

  1. Stand on one foot behind a sturdy chair, holding on for balance.
  2. Hold position for up to 10 seconds.
  3. Repeat 10-15 times.
  4. Repeat 10-15 times with other leg.
  5. Repeat 10-15 more times with each leg.

D. Stretching can improve your flexibility. Moving more freely will make it easier for you to reach down to tie your shoes or look over your shoulder when you back the car out of your driveway. Stretch when your muscles are warmed up. Don’t stretch so far that it hurts.

Back of leg stretch

This exercise stretches the muscles in the back of your legs. If you’ve had hip or back surgery, talk with your doctor before trying this stretch.

  1. Lie on your back with left knee bent and left foot flat on the floor.
  2. Raise right leg, keeping knee slightly bent.
  3. Reach up and grasp right leg with both hands. Keep head and shoulders flat on the floor.
  4. Gently pull right leg toward your body until you feel a stretch in the back of your leg.
  5. Hold position for 10-30 seconds.
  6. Repeat at least 3-5 times.
  7. Repeat at least 3-5 times with left leg.

Who Should Exercise?

Almost anyone, at any age, can do some type of physical activity. You can still exercise even if you have a health condition like heart disease or diabetes. In fact, physical activity may help. For most older adults, brisk walking, riding a bike, swimming, weight lifting, and gardening are safe, especially if you build up slowly. But, check with your doctor if you are over 50 and you aren’t used to energetic activity. Other reasons to check with your doctor before you exercise include:

  • Any new symptom you haven’t discussed with your doctor
  • Dizziness or shortness of breath
  • Chest pain or pressure or the feeling that your heart is skipping, racing, or fluttering
  • Blood clots
  • An infection or fever with muscle aches
  • Unplanned weight loss
  • Foot or ankle sores that won’t heal
  • Joint swelling
  • A bleeding or detached retina, eye surgery, or laser treatment
  • A hernia
  • Recent hip or back surgery

Safety Tips

Here are some things you can do to make sure you are exercising safely:

  • Start slowly, especially if you haven’t been active for a long time. Little by little, build up your activities and how hard you work at them.
  • Don’t hold your breath during strength exercises. That could cause changes in your blood pressure.It may seem strange at first, but you should breathe out as you lift something and breathe in as you relax.
  • Use safety equipment. For example, wear a helmet for bike riding or the right shoes for walking or jogging.
  • Unless your doctor has asked you to limit fluids, be sure to drink plenty of fluids when you are doing activities. Many older adults don’t feel thirsty even if their body needs fluids.
  • Always bend forward from the hips, not the waist. If you keep your back straight, you’re probably bending the right way. If your back “humps,” that’s probably wrong.
  • Warm up your muscles before you stretch. Try walking and light arm pumping first.

Exercise should not hurt or make you feel really tired. You might feel some soreness, a little discomfort, or a bit weary, but you should not feel pain. In fact, in many ways, being active will probably make you feel better.

 

Categories
Exercise & Fitness

Healthy Eating Plan

Healthy Eating Plan

A healthy eating plan gives your body the nutrients it needs every day while staying within your daily calorie goal for weight loss. A healthy eating plan also will lower your risk for heart disease and other health conditions.

A healthy eating plan:

  • Emphasizes vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and fat-free or low-fat dairy products
  • Includes lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, and nuts
  • Limits saturated and trans fats, sodium, and added sugars
  • Controls portion sizes

Calories

To lose weight, most people need to reduce the number of calories they get from food and beverages (energy IN) and increase their physical activity (energy OUT).

For a weight loss of 1–1 ½ pounds per week, daily intake should be reduced by 500 to 750 calories. In general:

  • Eating plans that contain 1,200–1,500 calories each day will help most women lose weight safely.
  • Eating plans that contain 1,500–1,800 calories each day are suitable for men and for women who weigh more or who exercise regularly.

Very low calorie diets of fewer than 800 calories per day should not be used unless you are being monitored by your doctor.

 

Categories
Exercise & Fitness

How to Quit Smoking

How to Quit Smoking

Smoking is implicated as a risk factor for many health problems, including:

  • Premature death: cigarette smoking is the single most important cause of premature death. Most premature deaths caused by smoking are due to lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and coronary heart disease.
  • Cancers of the upper respiratory tract, oesophagus, bladder, kidney, stomach, and pancreas; myeloid leukaemia.
  • Cerebrovascular disease, aortic aneurysm, and heart failure caused by coronary heart disease.
  • Peptic ulceration (gastric and duodenal).
  • Angina, peripheral arterial disease (including Buerger’s disease), macular degeneration, impotence, infertility, skin wrinkling, osteoporosis.
  • Increased severity of asthma, respiratory tract infections and diabetic retinopathy.
  • Passive smoking: exposure to environmental tobacco smoke causes an increased risk of smoking-related diseases, especially lung cancer and heart disease.
  • Children exposed to environmental tobacco smoke are at increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome, asthma, otitis media and chest infections in the first years of life.
  • Fetal exposure to maternal smoking increases the risk of miscarriage, premature birth, low birth weight and stillbirth. Smoking in pregnancy may also affect the child’s physical growth and academic attainment may be reduced.

How to Quit-smoking basics

Tobacco is a killer. Smokers and other tobacco users are more likely to develop disease and die earlier than are people who don’t use tobacco

Nicotine is highly addictive, and to quit smoking — especially without help — can be difficult. In fact, most people don’t succeed the first time they try to quit smoking. It may take more than one try, but you can stop smoking.

Take that first step: Decide to quit smoking. Set a stop date. And then take advantage of the multitude of resources available to help you successfully quit smoking.

Quit-smoking action plan

Now that you’ve decided to quit smoking, it’s time to map out your quit-smoking action plan. One of the first steps of your quit-smoking action plan should be “Get support.”

Support can come from family, friends, your doctor, a counselor, a support group or a telephone quit line. Support can also come from use of one or more of the medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration for smoking cessation.

Another key step in your quit-smoking action plan? Planning for challenges. For example, make a list of high-risk places you’ll want to avoid when you start your quit-smoking plan. Think of other places to go where smoking isn’t allowed, such as a shopping mall, a museum or movie theater.

Living smoke-free

What does living smoke-free mean? Living smoke-free is your opportunity to live a healthier and probably longer life. By the end of your first year, your risk of heart attack decreases by half. After 15 years, it’s almost the same as someone who never smoked. Living smoke-free can also mean better quality of life — with more stamina and a better ability to appreciate tastes and smells.

But living smoke-free doesn’t mean living stress-free. In fact, smokers often cite stress as a reason for relapsing. Instead of using nicotine to help cope with stress, you’ll need to learn new ways to cope. Be proactive. You can find out more about stress management online or at the library. For more help, talk with your doctor or a mental health provider.

Nicotine replacement therapy

Available methods of NRT include:

  • Patches
  • Gum
  • Nasal spray
  • Mouth spray
  • Inhalation cartridge
  • Lozenges
  • Sublingual tablets